Adopting a child from overseas
If you want to adopt, you can consider adopting an orphaned or abandoned child from overseas. We work with a number of other agencies to help people through the process of intercountry adoption.
Adopting an overseas child is usually more complex than adopting a child at home. Children adopted from overseas are usually older, and may have been emotionally affected by difficult experiences. There are cultural considerations as well — a child may not speak English and you’ll need to maintain a connection to their native heritage. Though not required, it helps if you have some kind of cultural links to the country you want to adopt from.
You’ll also need to consider that the process can be expensive and take a long time, your choice of countries is limited and there are often strict criteria for adopting families. However, each year there are some overseas children matched with families in New Zealand.
Countries you can adopt from
New Zealand has adoption agreements with seven countries through the Hague Convention. You can apply to adopt a child from Chile, China, Hong Kong, India, the Philippines, Lithuania and Thailand. Each country has its own requirements of adoptive parents and their own adoption process. We'll help you understand what's required and assist with collecting the extensive documentation you’ll need.
Which agencies are involved?
Inter-country adoption is a complex process and several government and private agencies are likely to be involved.
You can decide whether you want to work directly with us or use an accredited agency which will liaise with us on your behalf. If you choose to use the services of an agency, you’ll need to talk to them about their fees.
Adoption First Steps can carry out the assessment process so you can apply to be approved to adopt from a specific country.
We also work with Immigration New Zealand and the Department of Internal Affairs to complete intercountry adoptions.
Pathway to adoption
International adoptions don't happen quickly. Timeframes are unpredictable because requirements differ by country and each case is unique. We closely follow internationally recognised standards for inter-country adoptions, which are designed to provide safeguards for everyone involved.
First contact and information session
The best place to start is to contact one of our adoption social workers. They will answer any initial questions you have and tell you when the next group information session is in your area. At the session you’ll get an overview of the general adoption process and meet people who can answer your questions. You can also get an application form.
Applying to adopt overseas
Once you’ve decided you’d like to adopt, complete an application form, giving basic information about yourself. You specify which country you want to adopt a child from, as there are different requirements for each.
You’ll need to:
- provide the names of two referees
- provide your medical information from your doctor
- give permission for us to do a Police check and check our care and protection database
- provide a psychological report if required
- provide financial details
It's important that you have no history of criminal offences that might affect the safety of a child. You can ask your adoption social worker about any offences, health issues or other requirements that may affect your application.
Education and preparation programme
Once we've received your application, we’ll invite you to an adoption education and preparation programme. You’ll get in-depth information about intercountry adoption, and what it will mean to you and your family. This is also a chance for you to ask questions.
During the adoption process, you'll have a number of interviews with social workers. These help us learn about your home life and your background, so we can decide if you’re a suitable adoptive parent. It also builds a picture that helps a child to be matched with the best family for them.
Home Study Assessment Reports
If you’ve been assessed as suitable, your social worker will prepare a Home Study Assessment Report. This confirms your ability to care for a child adopted from the country you have chosen. This report is sent to us so we can decide whether to confirm your approval. It’s then sent to the adoption authorities in your chosen country, and they will consider if they want to accept your application.
Note that some countries have criteria for the types of parents that they'll consider for adoption, such as:
- fertility status
- marital status and duration of marriage
- family composition including number of children in the family
- religious requirements.
Matching you to a child
The adoption authorities in the country you've chosen will consider whether they have any children who would benefit from what your family has to offer. They then send the child's profile back to New Zealand for us to consider. We’ll make a decision to proceed, based on what's best for the child.
If there is a good match, your social worker will show you the child's profile and discuss the next steps. The final decision to adopt will involve you, us, the overseas authority, and the child, if they're old enough to make that decision.
Meeting your adopted child
Your social worker will help you with what to expect and what you need to do when you meet your child, or if you're working with ICANZ or CFO, they will assist you through this process.
Bringing your child to New Zealand
The legal process for intercountry adoption differs in each country. Sometimes there can be a long wait before adoption is finalised and this can be a difficult time for families. Some countries require that you go through their courts, or that you attend meetings, before the adoption is concluded and you can bring your child home.
In all cases the adoption authorities in both countries need to confirm an intercountry adoption can proceed, and produce evidence that the adoption process conforms to the Hague Convention.
Costs of inter-country adoptions
We don’t charge fees to assess you and complete a home study. However, there are some costs which will or may include:
- translation of documents
- lawyer’s fees
- psychologist report, if required
- legalising and authenticating documents to meet international requirements
- travel costs including airfares and accommodation.
Your social worker can tell you more about costs, as they vary from country to country.
If you choose to use the services of placement agency — ICANZ or CFO — you’ll need to talk to them about their fees.
After the adoption
Countries require post-adoption reports about your child’s progress. Your Ministry for Vulnerable Children, Oranga Tamariki ICANZ or CFO social worker will meet with you to compile these reports. This is a chance to talk openly about any worries or ask any questions you have. If you’re having any difficulties, they can help direct you to the right professional support. You may also choose to join intercountry adoption support groups in New Zealand or online internationally.
Open and closed inter-country adoptions
An open adoption is where the child, their adoptive parents and their birth parents all know about each other. Because inter-country adoptions usually involve orphaned or abandoned children, open adoptions are usually not possible. However, many inter-country adoptive families do return to their child's country of origin and some have been able to find extended family members.
It's important that your adopted child knows about their cultural heritage and life history. You should freely discuss their country of origin and acknowledge their birth family. You may also be able to help your child maintain contact with people that are significant to them in their country of origin, if that's possible. This will help them define their past, and create a stronger sense of self.